Food and Beverage – Lesson 7



Menu is a list of food and beverage that can be served t a guest at a price.  A menu represents the range of food and beverage items offered in a restaurant.  When the menu is represented on a card, it is referred to as the menu card.  It helps guests to select what they would like to eat and /or drink.

The word menu dates back to 1718, but the custom of making such a list is much older in earlier times, the menu of ceremonial meals

Was displayed on the wall to enable the kitchen staff to follow the order in which the dishes were to be served.






In older time the “bill of fare” as termed in English or “menu’ in French was not presented to the table.  It is said that in the year of 1541 A.D. in a state banquet. Duke Henry of Bunswilk was seen to refer to a long slip of paper.  On being asked about the content of that paper he said it was a Programme of dishes prepared for the party and with reference to it he could see what item was coming and save his appetite accordingly.  Thus we many presume that the ‘menu’ developed from such an event.




  1. It enables the guest to select dishes according to his linking and budget.
  2. It enables the cook to verify what he is coking everyday.
  3. It enables the waiter to take order clearly and quickly without any confusion.
  4. it enables the management to arrive at the cost for the preparation of food in the kitchen.




Although menu can be made for various types of establishment, occasions, functions, there are basically two type of menu.

  • Table d’hote
  • A-la-carte

the former is a menu with fixed price with limited or no choice and the a-la-carte menu is a list of all dishes that may be preferred & prepared by the establishment and from which a guest may select to compose his own menu.  Each dish is priced separately and a certain cooking time has o be allowed because it is coked to order.




The menu is the most important part f caterer’s work and it’s planning and compilation is regarded as an art, which can only e acquired through experience and studies.  The menu may be treated as a bridge looking the establishment to the customer. Thus this important think should be handled by a number of people in ——- namely the F&B controller, the executive chef and the restaurant manager

It must be remembered that a suitable menu is one, which considers the following factorsà

  1. 1.     The principle of balance diet.
  2. 2.     The principle of digestibility.
  3. 3.     Season of the year and availability of raw materials
  4. 4.     Nature of occasion
  5. 5.     Resources [i.e. skill and ability] of the kitchen staff and equipment required to prepare within the specific period
  6. 6.     Resources of serving staff including the space and availability of equipments.
  7. 7.     Balancing of food in terms of flavor, color, texture and consistency.


The following are other important points to e considered while compiling a menu [table d’hate]

a)     The menu should not contain 2 dishes which are composed of he same principle ingredient.  For example if cauliflower soup in the menu then cauliflower should not e used in the veg.curry or in any vegetable preparation.

b)    Two white or red meats should never follow each other. For eg. Pork with real or mutton with beef or chicken with turkey.

c)     A lighter dish should follow a light dish.

d)    Repetition of coking method should be avoided, eg. Grilled fish, if present in the menu, grilled chicken or mutton should be avoided.




The menu should be written either in French or in English or in any local vernacular language and should be clearly and easily understandable to the guest.  There should not e any mixture of languages.  Dishes of nation or of outstanding personal importance should not be translated.  For example.  Fish Colbert. Ensure proper spelling, correct terms and correct sequence within the courses.




ENGLISH TERM                                               FRENCH TERM

  1. i.              Appetizer                                            Hors-d’ oeuvred
  2. ii.            Soup                                                  Potage
  3. iii.           Fish                                                    Poisson
  4. iv.           Entry of                                              Entrée
  5. v.             Remove                                              Releve
  6. vi.           Sorbet                                                            Rest
  7. vii.          Roast                                                 Roti
  8. viii.         Vegetables                                         Legumes
  9. ix.           Sweet                                                 Entremet
  10. x.             Savory                                                Savoureux
  11. xi.           Fresh fruit                                           Dessert
  12. xii.          Coffee                                                            Café


Each courses of menu has a different name.  The names o these courses and the place, which take on the menu, is very important in the proper sequence.


APPETIZER:     it is a small appetizer dish, which often commences with meat. It stimulates the flow of saliva.  Although the term applied to the service of various cold salad E.g. Chicken salad, Russian salad, meal salad, and trifles of anchovy, sardine, olive, prone, radish.  It also covers whatever items is taken or served before soup.  e.g. -à  Melon, cavir, ouster, smoked salmon, grape fruit.

The “silver” generally used is fish knife and fish for.  But there are some very once, which are as follows—-

  1. SPOT DRINKS: It should be served in a fruit juice glass (ponney glass/ ponney tumbler) on an under plate.  egà  tomato juice, Apple juice, Melon juice ate served in this course.
  2. COCK TAILS:    shrimp cocktail, lobster cocktail, prone cocktail, etc. are served in a tall cocktail glass on the bed of crushed ice, on an under plate with a teaspoon.
  3. GRAPE FRUIT:  it is served in a grape fruit cup placed on an under plate with grape fruit spoon or teaspoon.  If the grape fruit cup is not available it may be served on a half plate with a folded napkin made in to a rope or roaster shape.
  4. MELON:            There are 4 types of melon such as cantaloupe, charentous, honeydew, and watermelon.  The melons are all served in a fruit plate or half plate on a bed of crushed ice and always served cold.  Appropriate silver to be used is fruit knife and fruit fork.  If the melon is very ripe, provide a dessertspoon.
  5. OYESTER;        oyster is served six at a time in a deep plate or soup plate and a bed of crushed ice.  An under plate should also be used on serving.  The usual silver is an oyster fork placed at the right hand side of the cover making a 45o angle. If the oyster fork is not available fish fork may be used of the same purpose a finger bowl may also passed.
  6. CAVIER:           the roe of stargen fish is called cavier.  The best-known “Piscean species”. The useal silver is fish knife and fish fork.  A finger bowl may be placed.





In general soup may be called as an extract of meat or vegetable.  Usually two soups are provided on a menu.

  1. Thick or consommé soup
  2. Clear or consommé soup

Now consommé soup may be divided in two parts —

  1. Consommé with garnish.
  2. Consommé with out garnish.
  3. Thick or cream soup: it is served in a soup plate with a soupspoon.  E.g.à cream of tomato soup, cream of chicken soup, scotch brath, puree of lentil etc.
  4. Consommé with garnish:  it is served usually with any soup plate and soupspoon.  E.g.à consommé gulliene. Consommé royal.


FISH OR POISSON:            In this course two kind of fish preparation are included the first one is always any large fish boiled or pouched and served with a sauce.  The second type always cooked in dry medium.  That is either fry or grill.  Fish being soft and the light dish— it prepared the plate for heavier dishes to follow.

Silver used for all type of fish are fish knife and the fish fork with half plate.  E.g.à fish a l’anlaise.  Jambon.


ENTRÉE OR ENTRY:          it is a made up dish (preplate dish) served before the main course.  Dishes following the fish course are called etree.  It is usually meat course and this dish is completed in it and served from the kitchen with its all appropriate garnishes and vegetable. egà chicken cutlet  asparagus omlet.  Silver used is small knife and small fork and half plate or entrée plate.


RELEVE OR REMOVE:       it is better known as joints say for example leg of lamb, shoulder of boiled or the case may be.  Potatoes and other two vegetables are served along with this course as accompaniment.  This is actually the main course of meat.  In Indian style meat curry made out of such joints is considered to be the main course with rice or polao, chapatti, nun or tanduri roti, Papad, Pickle chutney, Raita as its accompaniments. Silver used—a large knife and a large fork when rice or polao is on the menu along with the curry a dessertspoon should always be provided on top o the cover. A full plate or the meat plate is usual crockery for the main dish.  In Indian style a finger bow also e provided.


SORBET OR REST:            this actually a rest between the courses.  A sorbet is the glass of ice; cold water (chilled) flavored with champagne and it is served in a goblet. Cigarettes / cigar are passed at this stage.  10 to 15 minutes are allowed for this course.


ROTI OR ROAST:               this course signifies poultries or games chicken, dueks, turkey etc.  Accompanied by suitable sauce or gravy.  A neatly dressed salad is also served along with this.  Silver used is a large knife and a large fork.  Plateà full plate or meat plate.


LEGUMES OR VEGETABLE:          in this course dressed vegetables.  E.g.à asparagus, artichoke, broccoli, cauli flower, tomatoes, beans, mushroom etc. are served.  For all dressed vegetables a small knife and a small fork should e used. Especially for asparagus no silver is used it is eater with the finger so a finger bowl is require to be placed on the table.  For the service asparagus tong is used.


ENTREMET OR SWEET: this course may consist either hot or cold sweets say fro example – caramel custard, apple pic, and soufflé.  Silver used for all sweet is a dessertspoon and a small fork. But other than these three are some exceptions.

  1. For plain ice cream, e.g.à Vanilla, strawberry, chocolate an ice- cream cup and ice cream spoon and an under plate are the used silver.


  1. .


SAVOURY:       Various tit bits in a very small portion are served.  This savory course may also have soufflé e.g.à ad hock soufflé, cheese soufflé etc.

A.  CHEESE OR BISCUIT:   Cheese should be served on a side plate with a small knife, which is placed on the cover.  Cheese should be placed on a cheese board with a cheese knife for cutting.  Two tumblers should be provided for water.  Cress and celery stick as accompaniment.  Butter and biscuit are also the accompaniments for cheese.


B.  SAROINEON TO AST:  Tuna and toast etc are the example of fish savory.  Silver used is a fish knife and a fish fork.


  1. ANGEL ON HORSE BACK:  Kidney and toast livers and toast are the example of meat savory.  The usual silver is a small knife and a small fork.

 Desserts—fresh fruit & nuts:

This is a fruit course usually presented in a basket and placed on the table, as part of the table décor; & served at the end of the meal.  All forms of fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course.



This is not a course, but may be offered at the end of a meal and may include different varieties of coffee such as filter, cappuccino & cona- coffee.






  1. i.              A-la-Carte prices are higher.
  2. ii.            Portion size are large
  3. iii.           It is prevalent mainly in all F&B sales outlet other than banquet
  4. iv.           Provides wide option to a guest
  5. v.             Service time is long
  6. vi.           It’s a menu compilation


Table d’hote

  1. i.              Table d’hote prices are favor
  2. ii.            Portion sizes are smaller
  3. iii.           Prevailing mainly in banquets.
  4. iv.           Provide limited abtion to a guest.
  5. v.             Service time is lesser.

It’s a planned menu.



Special Appetizer (hors-D’oeuvre)


It is a small appetizing dish with which a meal often commences because it stimulates the flow of saliva.  Appetizer can be of two types:

  1. General
  2. Classical


  1. General appetizer:

Examples are potato—salad, egg mayonnaise, chicken shallots, salmon, smoked salmon.  Canopies olives, truffles of anchovy etc.  Cover for general appetizer will be fish knife & fish fork many organizations have introduced their own specially designed cutleries called hors—d’oeuvre knife & fork.  General appetizers are always served in half plate.

  1. Classical appetizer:
Dish Accompaniments Cover
1.  Grape fruit (plample mousse) Castor sugar Served chilled, cup on a side plate with a daily paper and grape fruit spoon.  Garnished with a cherry in center.
2. Caviar.

  1. veluga
  2. ossetra
  3. savruga

(it is a roe of a female sturgeon fish)

Toast, butter or blinis (pan cakes)finely chop shallots served hard boiled yolk & white of an egg. A fish knife on the right hand side of the cover, a cold fish plate, a side plate and a cruet set.  It is generally served in the container.
3.  Oyster’s (Huitres) Chilly vinegar to bas co (capsico), lemon wedges, brown bread and butter. Oysters are served 6 at a time. An oyster fork should be placed on the right hand side of the guest at the corner of the table at an angle of 45 0 with the knife.  A cayenne pepper mill, a soup plate or an oyster dish with crushed ice, a finger bowl on an under liner, a side plate, a side knife & a cruet set.
4.  Smoked salmon Lemon wedges brown bread & butter A fish knife & fork a cold fish plate, a cayenne pepper mill a cruet set, a side plate and a side knife.  Four slice are served.
5.  Artichoke asparagus







Warm hollandaise sauce & melted butter

Mayonnaise or vinaigrette

Asparagus tongs, a side knife and a side plate a cruet set and finger bowl.  (An overturned fork under the right upper corner of the half plate to keep the tips of the asparagus in the sauce at all time)
6.  Tomato juice Lemon wedges and Worcester shire sauce. A cruet set a daily on a side plate, a swizzle stick or a teaspoon.
7.  patede foie gras Melba toast and butter A cold fish plate, a side knife, a side plate & cruet set.
8.  Corn on cob Melted butter, lemon wedges & cream Corn on the cob holders, a side plates, a side knife & a cruet set.


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