Food and Beverage – Lesson 22

Lesson –22




Beverage is the potable Liquid essentially required for the body for maintaining the fluid level of the body and to increases the nourishment and refreshment.


Non-Alcoholic Beverage


These beverages are broadly classified as hot stimulating and cold refreshing & Nourishing beverage.


Hot beverage: – Coffee and tea is hot beverage that are most often served in restaurants & hotels. Both coffee & Tea can be made in different ways and are normally served from the pantry.




Coffee is made from roasted or un-roasted coffee beans. Freshly ground coffee powder gives a pleasant aroma, as the flavor and strength come from the oils in the coffee beans.


Storage of coffee


Coffee is an expensive commodity. Utmost care should be taken in its storage. Coffee beans / powder should be stored in an airtight container in a well- ventilated room away from excess moisture and strong smelling food, as ground coffee tends to lose it favor and aroma due to evaporation pf oils in the coffee powder.


How to make good coffee


  • Use freshly roasted and ground coffee
  • Match the correct variety of coffee to the type of machine used.
  • Ensure that all the equipment used is clean
  • Use a set measure of coffee powder for each cup.  Wrong measure can cause the flavor to fluctuate from cup to cup.
  • Add boiling water to coffee powder and allow it to infuse.  The infusion time should be controlled according the type of coffee, the machine used and the method of making coffee.
  • Control the temperature as coffee develops a bitter taste if allowed to boil.
  • Strain and serve black or with milk or cream separately.  Ideally coffee should be served within 30 minutes of being made.  The most desirable temperature at which coffee should be served is 84oC.




What makes coffee taste bad

  • Not allowing the water to reach its boiling point or boiling it too long.
  • Using coffee beans that are over roasted or not roasted properly.
  • Use too much or too little short or infusing it at a high temperature.
  • Keeping prepared coffee for too long before service or serving reheated coffee.


Service of coffee

All food and beverage service personnel should know the various methods of serving of coffee.  The service of coffee is largely depending on the method used to make it.  Coffee should be served piping hot, at the correct flavor & strength with the right accompaniments in correct cups.


Types Of Coffee


a)    Filter or percolator Coffee: –

                               The filter coffee machine has two parts a coffee pot and an infusion pot.  After being infused through the coffee grounds, the filter coffee decoction is collected in the coffee pot. Since the coffee is placed on a hot plate, it remains hot and ready for service.


b)    Cona Coffee: –

This type of coffee is made and served from a specially designed glass case called the cona coffee machine.


c)    Turkish Coffee: –

                              Finely ground coffee beans are used to make this type of coffee. The coffee powder is placed in a special copper jug  & boiling water is poured into it and brought to boil. It is not filtered. A few drops of cold water are sprinkled out the top to help the coffee grains to settle. This should be done gently so as not to disturb the froth. It is then served in a demitasse. A drop of value a essence or a few rasepetals may be added to enhance the flavor.


d) Espresso Coffee: –

It is Italian in origin. It is made in specially designed machines by passing steam through coffee grounds. Instructions for each Maiden may vary and they should be followed meticulously to achieve consistently high standards. The addition of milk or cream is optional.


e) Cappuccino: –   

                             This is a strong black coffee similar to express coffee but with a chocolaty flavor. It is topped with cream or steam frothed milk and sprinkled with chocolate powder.


f)     Decaffeinated Coffee: –

                                    Coffee contains a stimulant called coffee. When caffeine is removed from coffee it is called decaffeinated coffee. In Europe, it is referred to as café Hag and in the USA, it is a called Sanka.










The British introduced it to India. Tea becomes the most popular beverage in a comparatively short period. There after, the habit of drinking tea spread rapidly through out the British Empire. Today tea is the most widely consumed beverage. It is estimated that one billion cups of tea are consumed every day.


Tea is obtained from a tropical & subtropical evergreen shrub called camelliasinasis. After picking, the tealeaves are processed into one of the three basic forms of tea – black – green & oolong.




Basic forms of Tea: –


Black Tea: – The leaves are crushed and exposed to air to undergo chemical changes before they are dried. This turns the leaves brown and gives black and gives black tea its distinctive taste. More than three quarters of the tea that is harvested in the world is made into black Tea. Mast people in India, the USA & EUROPE, consume this form of tea.



Green Tea: – This is the oldest form of tea and is flavored by the Japanese and the Chinese. The leaves under go less processing as they are only heated and dried to retain their green color.


Oolong tea: – This is a form of tea half way between black & green tea.


Storage of tea: – Tea should be stored in air tight containers in a moisture free place of away from strong smelling food.


Making Tea: –

Warm the teapot with freshly drowns & boiled water. Add the correct amount of tealeaves – one teaspoon per person and one for the pot. Allow the tealeaves to steep in it for a few minutes. Using a tea strainer fill the teacup to a little more than two thirds.  Add milk if desired by the guest. Allow the guest to add sugar on his own.


Point should kept in mind while making tea: –
  • Use good quality tealeaves.
  • Use freshly drawn & boiled water. Over boiled water makes tea insipid.
  • Warm the pot with hot water before the tea is poured in it.
  • Tea should be brewed and not stewed. The average time for the whole infusion, process should be between 4 to 6 minute. However, it may very depend on the size of the teapot & the type of water used. Software inrushes more readily than hard water.


Service of tea: – Place small teacup, a teaspoon & a saucer in front of each guest. Place a small with a teapot, a hot water jug and a milk jug on the right and side for the guest to help them selves.  Some guest may like their tea black or with a wedge of lemon. Tea can also be served diced with a sprig of mint. The manor in which tea is taken is a matter of personal preference. It is advisable to check with guests as to how they prefer to have their tea served.

Cold Beverage: –
Fresh Fruit Juice: – This is the extract of juice obtained from fruits.


Natural Mineral Water: –

Natural mineral water is the water produced from natural springs. It contains various minerals and in some cases, natural gases. The water comes from various parts of the world and its name is normally derived from its source or origin.

Natural water is classified according to its most. Prominent physical and chemical properties.


Categories of Natural Mineral Water: –

Apparent water: Arabella, Mount Mira belle, Rubin.

Alkaline water: Evian, Air – les – bais, Chantilly.


Ferrogenous Water: Alberia, Spa, Vittal Hom – berg.


Sulphurous water: Aix – les – chappal, Bonne.

Table water: Apollo, Burton, Malvel.


Artificial mineral water: –

Artificial mineral waters are artificially impregnated with minerals and gases. Soda water, lemonade, tonic water, ginger – ber & ginger – ale are some examples.


Cordials & squashes: –

These are made from fruit juice & others flavors. They derive their names from the type of flavor used. They require diluting with soda & water. Some examples are lemon, cherry, strawberry orange, mango, or lemon squash.

Artificial mineral water: – Water impregnated artificially with minerals and gases.
Cocktail: – A mixture of alcoholic from alcoholic beverages.
 Cocktail shaker: – A container used for combining beverages by shaking vigorously.

Cordial: – A fruit flavored drink.

Decaffeinated coffee: – Coffee, which has no caffeine in it.

Demitasse: – A small coffee cup.

Natural mineral water: – Water produced from natural water springs & naturally impregnated with various minerals & sometimes gases.





BEER: – Beer is an alcoholic Beverage made by formenting cereals and malt (i.e. Barley, oat water, rice, maize etc.) And the process is called brewing. The alcoholic content of beer is low. It is usually between 3 to 8 percent. However barley is used often, as the conversion of sugar into alcohol by brewer’s yeast not so easily accomplished in other cereals. Hops give beer its bitterness, pleasant aroma & a fine froth.


RAW Material


i)              Malted Barley: – Barley is preferred to other cereals as it can be more easily malted for brewing. The sugar in malted barley is known as maltose. . The maltose converts into Glucose. During fermentation process this Glucose are converted into alcohol & co2 by present of yeast.

ii)             Hops: – These are cone shaped flowers from Hock Tree. Which are plucked dried & used for beer manufacturing. It imports bitterest & distinguishes flavor in the beer. It also have preservative quality.

iii)            Sugar: – specialy refine sugars are used which help in fermentation to produce alcohol & also add sweetness.

iv)            Yeast:– Its work is to propagate and split up the sugar components in to equal quantities of alcohol & carbon dioxide.

v)             Fining:– In this stage material used to clarified beer. (i.e., ox blood, Egg white, Egg shell). This all are used to attract the sediment to the bottom of the cask where beer is stored & live it clear.

vi)            Priming: – It is the solution of sugar & hops add to some beer during storage. This solution developed the condition of the beer by the remaining yeast re – acting with sugar to produce co2 & alcohol in the cask. This is called secondary fermentation.

vii)           Brewer Water: – Usually drawn from specially constructed wells & may have some mineral, which help to develop special feature of beer.





The Process Of Manufacturing Beer:


Brewing: crushed the malted barley is mixed with warm water.  The solution that is obtained from this brew is called Wort.  The Wort is coded to 16oC in a refrigerator.  This process takes about 10-12 hours.


Fermentation:  a special strain of yeast called brewer’s yeast is added to the Wort for fermentation.  This yeast breaks down the sugar in the malt to produce alcohol and CO2.  This stage at lasts 10-12days.


Maturing:  at this stage finings, a clarifying agent is added to clarify and brighten the fermented beer by attracting the sediment to the bottom of the cask.  The most common clarifying agent is isinglass — a product obtained from the bladder of the sturgeon fish.  A solution of sugar & hops called priming is also added to improve the condition of the beer.  The beer is then left to mature in casks for 3 to 4 months.

Racking:  racking is a process of running off the beer form one cask to another so as to leave the sediment behind.

Filtration:  after racking, the beer is stored in refrigerated wooden cask for 6 months.  It is then filtered & bottled.  The beer acquires its color form the wooden casks.

Service of beer:  beer should be served cold, with a fine collar of froth or head on it.  The froth comes from the introduction of CO2.  Beer mugs should be washed properly to avoid grease as it reduces the froth.  Beer is season beverage.  It is specially served in summer.


See diagram:-1.1



Types of beer

Lager:  the word lager means to store.  Lager beer is stored in refrigerated vats for 6 months during the maturation stage.

Pilsner lager:  these are bottom fermented light colored beer’s derived form Czech original.  They were earlier stored during maturation in the limestone caves of pilsen, a small town in Czechoslovakia.

Ale: this is slightly cloudy and hoppy to taste and traditionally served at room temperature.  It has moderate alcoholic content of 3.5 to 6%.

Porter: it is a fairly dark beer with a strong malt flavor, caused due to the malt being toasting for a long period.  It gets its name from the porters of London who were known to favor this beer.

Stout:  it is dark in color, very dry & fairly bitter in taste, due to a strong hoppy flavor.  The best-known variety is Irish stout.

Draught: – This beer is filled in Sterilized kegs and is allowed to mature in the cellars before it is sold for consumption. Draught beer can not be stored for a long time, as secondary fermentation takes place in case it self. Beer is sold in bottles and cans as it retains a consistent flavor and stays in good condition for a reasonable length of time.


Popular Brand Of Beer:


American                                                : Bud wiser, Coors

Australian                                               : Fosters

English                                                   : Porter, Pale Ale

Irish                                                        : Guinness Stout

German                                                  : Pils Export

Dutch                                                     : Heineken

Indian                                                     : King fisher, Kalyani Black Label, Hay



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